#4031

12.09.2018

health is something desirable in itself, so if justice is the health of the soul then it too should be desirable. . it pays to be just . Socrates concludes Book IV by asserting that justice amounts to the health of the soul: a just soul is a soul with its parts arranged appropriately, and is thus a healthy soul

SparkNotes: The Republic: Book IV, page 3

His strong love of truth weakens urges that might lead to vice. . We tend to think of justice as a set of actions, yet Socrates claims that justice is really a result of the structure of the soul. . he has identified justice on both the political and individual levels. . truth-loving guardians rule, with the honor-loving auxiliaries acting as their helpers to keep the money-loving producers in line. . In a just person the rational part of the soul rules the other parts, with the spirited part acting as helper to keep the appetitive in line. . The appetite, or money-loving part, is the aspect of the soul most prominent among the producing class; the spirit or honor-loving part is most prominent among the auxiliaries; and reason, or the knowledge-loving part, is dominant in the guardians. . a rational part of the soul that lusts after truth, a spirited part of the soul that lusts after honor, and an appetitive part of the soul that lusts after everything else, including food, drink, sex, and especially money. . Justice in the individual, as in the city, involves the correct power relationship among parts, with each part occupying its appropriate role . Since only the guardians possess knowledge, only the guardians can be truly virtuous or courageous. . Socrates tells us, is the right beliefs about what is to be feared and what is not to be feared. Their courage is founded upon belief, rather than knowledge. . The city’s courage, Socrates tells us, is located in the auxiliaries, because it is only their courage that will effect the city as a whole. Yet right after making this claim, he goes on to tell us that what the auxiliaries possess is not simply courage . a rational part of the soul that lusts after truth, a spirited part of the soul that lusts after honor, and an appetitive part of the soul that lusts after everything else, including food, drink, sex, and especially money. . Justice in the individual, as in the city, involves the correct power relationship among parts, with each part occupying its appropriate role. In the individual, the “parts” are not classes of society; instead, they are aspects of the soul—or source . Since only the guardians possess knowledge, only the guardians can be truly virtuous or courageous . Their courage is founded upon belief, rather than knowledge. . he right beliefs about what is to be feared and what is not to be feared. . The city’s courage, Socrates tells us, is located in the auxiliaries, because it is only their courage that will effect the city as a whole. Yet right after making this claim, he goes on to tell us that what the auxiliaries possess is not simply courage . ust relations between the three parts of the soul mirror just relations among the classes of society. . The appetite, or money-loving part, is the aspect of the soul most prominent among the producing class; the spirit or honor-loving part is most prominent among the auxiliaries; and reason, or the knowledge-loving part, is dominant in the guardians. . he identifies a rational part of the soul that lusts after truth, a spirited part of the soul that lusts after honor, and an appetitive part of the soul that lusts after everything else, including food, drink, sex, and especially money . he identifies a rational part of the soul that lusts after truth, a spirited part of the soul that lusts a . In the individual, the “parts” are not classes of society; instead, they are aspects of the soul—or sources of desire. . e. . . In the individual, the “parts” are not classes of society; instead, they are aspects of the soul—or sources of desir . Justice in the individual, as in the city, involves the correct power relationship among parts, with each part occupying its appropriate role . real virtue must be founded upon knowledge, suggesting that virtue based on habit or belief and not knowledge will fail when the going gets very tough . courage is founded upon belief, rather than knowledge . the right beliefs about what is to be feared and what is not to be feared. . auxiliaries possess is not simply courage but something he calls “civic courage.” Many scholars have interpreted civic courage as a kind of second-rate courage. . The city’s courage, Socrates tells us, is located in the auxiliaries, because it is only their courage that will effect the city as a whole. . they were thinking about justice as a set of actions, rather than as a structure to society, a phenomenon that spreads out over a city as a whole.

SparkNotes: The Republic: Book IV, page 2

Each is assigned the role in society that best suits their nature and that best serves society as a whole. . Plato’s definition of justice—justice as a political arrangement in which each person plays the appropriate role . Moderation is identified with the agreement over who should rule the city, and justice, finally, is its complement—the principle of specialization, the law that all do the job to which they are best suited. . A courageous farmer, or even ruler, would do the city no good . Courage lies with the auxiliaries. . their wisdom becomes the city’s virtue. . f the guardians were not ruling, if it were a democracy, say, their virtue would not translate into the virtue of the city. . we will now look for each of the four virtues: wisdom, courage, moderation, and justice. . Everything we think of as a matter of law can be left to the judgement of the properly educated rulers. . no use for laws . they share everything in common among them, including wives and children . the best warriors and points out that any neighboring city would be happy to come to our aid if we promised them all the spoils of war. . there will be no money . On the statue, as in the city, we must deal with each part appropriately, in order to make the situation best for the whole. . their goal in building this city is not to make any one group happy at the expense of any other group, but to make the city as a whole as happy as it can be.

SparkNotes: The Republic: Book IV

Google Advanced Search

Google Advanced Search

HIGHLIGHT Bookmarklet | Bookmarklet Search Engine

How Diversity Makes Us Smarter - Scientific American

.

How Diversity Makes Us Smarter - Scientific American

.

How Diversity Makes Us Smarter - Scientific American

. In the presence of diversity, they were more diligent and open-minded. I’m also coming to terms with how much all of these things have influenced my choices and my interests. Also, my interest in things that I can’t stomach, people work harder in diverse environments . When disagreement comes from a socially different person, we are prompted to work harder. . when we hear dissent from someone who is different from us, it provokes more thought than when it comes from someone who looks like us. . Being with similar others leads us to think we all hold the same information and share the same perspective . They found that companies that prioritized innovation saw greater financial gains when women were part of the top leadership ranks. . People who are different from one another in race, gender and other dimensions bring unique information and experiences to bear on the task at hand

How Diversity Makes Us Smarter - Scientific American

You don’t need to know everything about UX – UX Collective

Perhaps, therefore, they had been marked—singled out—chosen—to fulfill some special destiny. . America was different from other lands; and the lives they lived within it were exceptional, were “remarkable” (a word they often used) by the standard of their time . the colonial Americans, had not entirely come round to the same starting-point as countless generations of their forebears. And some parts of their lives were novel indee . continuity was preferred and novelty viewed as dangerous . They expected always to conserve what the past had bequeathed them—not to innovate, not to experiment, not to improve on the accumulated wisdom of the ages. . godliness” . Good reputation w . competence . A bird’s-eye view of the entire landscape, as of 1770, might have disclosed the following: . Taken as a whole, this cluster of conflicts showed deep fault lines in the domain of leadership. . Nathaniel Bacon . Social credentials, like family pedigree, counted for less on this side of the ocean than on the other. . eventeenth-century colonists had no concept of a loyal opposition; to the contrary, political opposition meant disloyalty, possibly treason . other constraints were culturally determined. . New England’s system of town-meeting government offered wider scope for popular participation; leaders were chosen annually by vote, and policy was decided the same way. Still, voting itself was limited to a certain portion of townspeople . his was most obviously true in the southern colonies, where a small pool of “gentlemen” dominated the membership of county courts, and thus controlled a wide range of both administrative and judicial affairs. . Virtually everywhere the reins of power were held by elites. . Decentralization and local autonomy did not, however, mean democracy in any modern sense. . In Massachusetts, in Virginia, and later in New York and Pennsylvania, home-grown legislative bodies sprang into being and assumed an increasing measure of control. Indeed, the same decentralizing process developed even at the local level, as individual . Distance and the unforeseen difficulties of life on the colonial ground threw most of these founding plans off-track. . xpectations were one thing, outcomes another . The English monarchy left them largely to their own devices, offering high-sounding charters but little in the way of direct support and guidance. . A different but related set of problems involved social and political organization. At first, the very idea of creating new human communities in far-off lands seemed strange and perplexing. What defined a colony? What shape sho . All these factors, taken together, imposed a heavy charge on colonial producers. . Capital seemed always to be scarce; what there was of it came largely from—and then quickly returned to—the mother country. Cash, in particular, was hard to come by. Thus, at . Even at its best, the colonial labor system fell short. Simply put, there frequently weren’t enough workers to do the job right; thus, at an everyday level, productive arrangements showed a certain sloppiness. . Lacking a cash crop, New Englanders did not have the actual or potential resources to invest in any form of bound labor. Instead, they did the work themselves—with each household making full use of its own members, especially grown sons. (This could mea . In the middle colonies of Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the response was a combination of tenancy and servitude. . In the Carolina country, somewhat later on, the response would be slavery . In the Chesapeake region, the main response during the first several decades was indentured servitude . a development problem—or, in their own words, the problem of transforming a “wild” countryside into a “pleasant garden. . All this was part of convincing themselves that they had not lost their essential, long-treasured identity as English. It was, in effect, a strategy of denial; and, for the most part, it worked.
Page: next 4036 4035 4034 4033 4032 4031 4030 4029 4028 4027 4026 previous