In the Chesapeake region, the main response during the first several decades was indentured servitude . a development problem—or, in their own words, the problem of transforming a “wild” countryside into a “pleasant garden. . All this was part of convincing themselves that they had not lost their essential, long-treasured identity as English. It was, in effect, a strategy of denial; and, for the most part, it worked. . , they sought to overcome the unnerving strangeness of the land by remaking it in the image of home; at every point they sought to replicate English ways. . starving times” they knew in the immediate aftermath of arrival did not, by and large, recur; . they had to endure psychological stress as well as physical privation . everything they encountered seemed strange and puzzling. . At the outset the settlers faced stark odds of survival . their losses in wartime were hugely compounded by their vulnerability to epidemic diseases carried from overseas in the boats and bodies of the colonizers; by the 1700s their numbers had been reduced by a factor of ten. . play an ambivalent role in colonization. On the one hand, Indians often served as helpers and teachers of the struggling, sometimes overmatched, newcomers. (For example: Squanto really did show the Pilgrims how to plant corn, just as legend declares.) On . perhaps 10 million strong . Of course, there were also Indians . the following century would bring an extraordinary shift toward multiethnic, multicultural diversity, as Germa . ns, Scots-Irish, and, most especially, Africans arrived in increasingly large numbers. By the time of the Am . Pennsylvania, founded (1681) by English Quakers . far southwest . the Spanish in Florida . the French in what is now Canada, the Dutch in New Netherlands (founded in 1626 and Anglicized four decades later, with its name changed to New York) . Both factors—crop and marketing requirements—worked to disperse settler populations across a broad expanse of coastal and interior land (the Tidewater and the Piedmont, in local parlance). . Tobacco exhausted soil fertility so rapidly that individual planters felt obliged to engross large quantities of land simply in order to maintain consistent levels of production; when, after a few years, one field would no longer bear a good crop, cultiva . distinctive settlement pattern of the Chesapeake colonies—where numerous, more or less isolated, “plantations” lay stretched out along rivers and ridgelines, with little in the way of village-style contact among them. . a refuge for Catholics fleeing the rising pressure of Puritanism in old England . Maryland, . Virginians turned after 1620 to intensive tobacco-cultivation . from Puritan to Yankee.” . rganized around largely autonomous “Congregational” churches; ministers played a key role in the local culture; and Protestant moral strictures framed many aspects of everyday life. Farming was the focus of productive effort, and most of what was rais . a deeply religious orientation . Massachusetts—begun at Boston in 1630, following a beachhead made a decade before by the “Pilgrims” at Plymouth—retained . looked more toward material gain; . Chesapeake Bay . nd Help Us . converting native “savages”—hence their adoption of an official seal with the image of an unclothed Indian saying, “Come Over a . At first, their plans mirrored those of the Spanish and Portuguese . The British, and others from northern Europe, were latecomers to the imperial contest. As a result, their entry, beginning around 1600, was channeled toward what was left—chiefly, the Caribbean islands and the cold, apparently hostile and frightening, c . aid claim to most of what is today Central and South America. . Portugal and Spain . Yet the motivation for such endeavor also involved extending Christianity to “heathen lands,” and locating rich sources of gold and other precious metals—twin ideas of ancient provenance. . the clash and competition of European empires—a distinctly modern element. . The colonization by Europeans of the two great American continents expressed both sides of the bridge. . As such, it is part of a bridge between markedly different eras in the history of the western world. On its far side lies the long stretch we call the Middle Ages (or the “medieval period”), on its near one the rise of much we connect with modernity. . early modern period. . uding some which financed transatlantic “discovery”), of modern state formation (“nations,” roughly as we understand the term today), of . modern state formatio . modern capitalism . modern political thought . modern science . modernity . the Middle Ages (or the “medieval period”) . American colonial history belongs to what scholars call the early modern period

Colonization and Settlement, 1585–1763 | AP US History Study Guide from The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History

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Hamilton for the Independent Journal

The Federalist 15 < The Complete Federalist Papers < 1786-1800 < Documents < American History From Revolution To Reconstruction and beyond

One theoretical risk of probiotics, says Dr. Hibberd, "is if someone has an immune system weakened by illness or medication, that person could get sick from probiotics." . Probiotics are commonly used to reduce gastrointestinal symptoms that are not due to acute illness, such as gas, bloating, and constipation. "But, again, we don't have a lot of evidence to document that this works, particularly in older people," . Some studies that suggest if you take a probiotic while taking antibiotics, you're less likely to get diarrhea caused by the antibiotic. Probiotics taken as a supplement may also reduce the number of colds you'll have in a year. . "They can be helpful in some cases, but we have relatively few studies to tell us if and when they are safe and effective for older adults," . You'll want a product that explicitly states a "sell-by" date.

Should you take probiotics? - Harvard Health

Should you take probiotics? - Harvard Health

Economia do Brasil – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Economia do Brasil – Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre

Since 1980, the bottom half of Canada's earners have actually seen their earnings in the workforce shrink, when adjusted for inflation

Relentlessly Rising Wealth Disparity Threatens To Destabilize Canada: Author

WFUSakai : BIO 101 lab Fall 2018 : Labs

WFUSakai : BIO 101 lab Fall 2018 : Labs

urn the clock back to 1676, exactly 100 years before the American Revolution. A dashing, w by artists such as Hannah Hoch and Richard Hamilton, she made collages exploring how state violence shows up on people’s bodies. . in a girls’ Catholic school in Nairobi and on a number of violent events in Africa’s colonial and post-colonial history.Burk agreed with Jefferson that Bacon and his call to arms was simply a plea for self-preservation against Indian incursions. The blame for the rebellion fairly lay full and square on the shoulders of Berkeley.

Wangechi Mutu: under the skin of Africa | Art and design | The Guardian

The charge eventually disappeared on condition he leave the country, but Burk ignored the order and settled down in Petersburg, Va . n 1798, as editor of a New York magazine, Burk was arrested and charged with uttering seditious and libelous remarks against President John Adams

Wangechi Mutu Feminist Artist - Interview

Daly Burk, . Mathew’s storytelling so impressed President Jefferson that he made a handwritten copy of the manuscript which he then returned to Rufus King. Jefferson passed his copy to his friends . on a Sabbath morning in the summer anno 1675, people in their way to church, saw this (Robert) Hen lying thwart his threshold, and an Indian without (outside) the door, both chop’t on their heads , arms and other parts as if done with Indian hatchetsâ . The opening page hooks the reader in the grandest Hollywood style: “About the year 1675, appear’d three prodigies in that country which, from th’ attending disasters were looked upon as ominous presages. The first was a large comet, every evening f . Mathew’s account, drawn from his memory of events peppered with a liberal dressing of hearsay from 30 years before, is reported to have got Thomas Jefferson a-thinking … “If this little book speaks the truth, Nathaniel Bacon will be no longer regard . In late 1803, Thomas Jefferson received a package from Rufus King, an American diplomat serving in London. The package contained a 1705 manuscript, written by Thomas Mathews . Despite this rebellion’s failure, later historians feted Bacon as a precursor of the American Revolution . “How miserable that man is . Berkeley had seen it coming. . a rip-snorting rant directed against Virginia’s governing elite and what Bacon saw as cronyism, corruption and neglect of duty . he issued a “Declaration in the Name of the People,” signing himself “General by Consent of the People.” . Bacon viewed his own actions as heroic. . The years prior to 1676 had been disastrous for families trying to make a living on the frontier. Bad weather, high taxes and poor returns from their crops led to rumblings of dissatisfaction with the colonial government. The colonists’ anger was mainly . on Oct. 26, 1676. Not long after, 23 of his co-conspirators, on the decree of the governor, were hanged and Virginia attempted to get back to normal. But what motivated Bacon to follow the bloody path of rebellion? . e . But this particular story has been mired in controversy since Nathaniel Bacon died of “the bloodie flux” — dysentery — and an infestation of body lic . So the story goes. . urn the clock back to 1676, exactly 100 years before the American Revolution. A dashing, well-heeled young Englishman, Nathaniel Bacon, recently arrived from England — leads a rebellion against Virginia’s established order. The colony’s government i . urn the clock back to 1676, exactly 100 . ears before the American Revolution. A d . Not long after, 23 of his co-conspirators, on the decree of the governor, were hanged and Virginia attempted to get back to normal. But what motivated Bacon to follow the bloody path of rebellion . this particular story has been mired in controversy since Nathaniel Bacon died of “the bloodie flux” — dysentery — and an infestation of body lice
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