through gas warfare the aura is abolished in a new way. . instead of dropping seeds from airplanes, it drops incendiary bombs over cities . Instead of draining rivers, society directs a human stream into a bed of trenches . If the natural utilization of productive forces is impeded by the property system, the increase in technical devices, in speed, and in the sources of energy will press for an unnatural utilization, and this is found in war. . This manifesto has the virtue of clarity. Its formulations deserve to be accepted by dialecticians . War is beautiful because it establishes man’s dominion over the subjugated machinery by means of gas masks, terrifying megaphones, flame throwers, and small tanks. War is beautiful because it initiates the dreamt-of metalization of the human body. Wa . Only war makes it possible to mobilize all of today’s technical resources while maintaining the property system. . All efforts to render politics aesthetic culminate in one thing: war. War and war only can set a goal for mass movements on the largest scale while respecting the traditional property system. . forces to their knees, has its counterpart in the violation of an apparatus which is pressed into the production of ritual values. . The violation of the masses, whom Fascism, with its F�hrer cult, . Fascism seeks to give them an expression . while preserving property . The masses have a right to change property relations . ting the property structure which the masses strive to eliminate. Fascism sees its salvation in giving these masses not their right, but instead a chance to express themselves . ascism attempts to organize the newly created proletarian masses without affec . ees it . The growing proletarianization of modern man and the increasing formation of masses are two aspects of the same process. . The public is an examiner, but an absent-minded one. . The film with its shock effect meets this mode of reception halfway. The film makes the cult value recede into the background not only by putting the public in the position of the critic, but also by the fact that at the movies this . position requires no attention. . Reception in a state of distraction, which is increasing noticeably in all fields of art and is symptomatic of profound changes in apperception, finds in the film its true means of exercise. . Today it does so in the film. . art will tackle the most difficult and most important ones where it is able to mobilize the masses . can form habits . c . The distracted person . They are mastered gradually by habit, under the guidance of tactile appropriation . This mode of appropriation, developed with reference to architecture . As regards architecture, habit determines to a large extent even optical reception . Tactile appropriation is accomplished not so much by attention as by habit . On the tactile side there is no counterpart to contemplation on the optical side. . Such appropriation cannot be understood in terms of the attentive concentration of a tourist before a famous building. . or rather, by touch and sight. . by tou . Architecture has never been idle. Its history is more ancient than that of any other art, and its claim to being a living force has significance in every attempt to comprehend the relationship of the masses to art. Buildings are appropriated in a twof . But the human need for shelter is lasting. . Panel painting is a creation of the Middle Ages, and nothing guarantees its uninterrupted existence. . The epic poem, which had its origin in the youth of nations, expires in Europe at the end of the Renaissance. . Many art forms have developed and perished. Tragedy begins with the Greeks, is extinguished with them, and after centuries its “rules” only are revived . Buildings have been man’s companions since primeval times . The laws of its reception are most instructive. . the distracted mass absorbs the work of art. This is most obvious with regard to buildings. Architecture has always represented the prototype of a work of art the reception of which is consummated by a collectivity in a state of distraction. . He enters into this work of art the way legend tells of the Chinese painter when he viewed his finished painting. . A man who concentrates before a work of art is absorbed by it . Distraction and concentration form polar opposites which may be stated as follows . the masses seek distraction whereas art demands concentration from the spectator. . Quantity has been transmuted into quality . The mass is a matrix from which all traditional behavior toward works of art issues today in a new form . “I can no longer think what I want to think. My thoughts have been replaced by moving images.” . It cannot be arrested . Before the movie frame he cannot do so. No sooner has his eye grasped a scene than it is already changed . Let us compare the screen on which a film unfolds with the canvas of a painting. The painting invites the spectator to contemplation; before it the spectator can abandon himself to his associations. . It hit the spectator like a bullet, it happened to him, thus acquiring a tactile quality. . From an alluring appearance or persuasive structure of sound the work of art of the Dadaists became an instrument of ballistics. . Dadaistic activities actually assured a rather vehement distraction by making works of art the center of scandal . The same is true of their paintings, on which they mounted buttons and tickets. . What they intended and achieved was a relentless destruction of the aura of their creations, which they branded . as reproductions with the very means of production. Before a painting of Arp’s or a po . The studied degradation of their material was not the least of their means to achieve this uselessness. . The Dadaists attached much less importance to the sales value of their work than to its uselessness for contemplative immersion. . in a new art form . The history of every art form shows critical epochs in which a certain art form aspires to effects which could be fully obtained only with a changed technical standard . Here the camera intervenes with the resources of its lowerings and liftings, its interruptions and isolations, it extensions and accelerations, its enlargements and reductions. The camera introduces us to unconscious optics as does psychoanalysis to un . reaching for a lighter or a spoon is familiar routine, yet we hardly know what really goes on between hand and metal . ource . Even if one has a general knowledge of the way people walk, one knows nothing of a person’s posture during the fractional second of a stride. . an unconsciously penetrated space is substituted for a space consciously explored by man. . “which, far from looking like retarded rapid movements, give the effect of singularly gliding, floating, supernatural motions. . So, too, slow motion not only presents familiar qualities of movement but reveals in them entirely unknown ones . With the close-up, space expands; with slow motion, movement is extended. The enlargement of a snapshot does not simply render more precise what in any case was visible, though unclear: it reveals entirely new structural formations of the subject. . we calmly and adventurously go traveling . Our taverns and our metropolitan streets, our offices and furnished rooms, our railroad stations and our factories appeared to have us locked up hopelessly . By close-ups of the things around us, by focusing on hidden details of familiar objects, by exploring common place milieus under the ingenious guidance of the camera, the film, on the one hand, extends our comprehension of the necessities which rule ou . its artistic value or its value for science . of a screened behavior item which is neatly brought out in a certain situation . chief importance from its tendency to promote the mutual penetration of art and science. . because it can be isolated more easily . In comparison with the stage scene, the filmed behavior item lends itself more readily to analysis . . This book isolated and made analyzable things which had heretofore floated along unnoticed in the broad stream of perception . For the entire spectrum of optical, and now also acoustical, perception the film has brought about a similar deepening of apperception . behavior items shown in a movie can be analyzed much more precisely and from more points of view than those presented on paintings or on the stage. . The characteristics of the film lie not only in the manner in which man presents himself to mechanical equipment but also in the manner in which, by means of this apparatus, man can represent his environment. . the same public which responds in a progressive manner toward a grotesque film is bound to respond in a reactionary manner to surrealism. . there was no way for the masses to organize and control themselves in their reception. . Although paintings began to be publicly exhibited in galleries and salons . the particular conflict in which painting was implicated by the mechanical reproducibility of paintings . is confronted directly by the masses . threat as soon as painting . it does constitute a serious . as it was possible for architecture at all times, for the epic poem in the past, and for the movie today. . Painting simply is in no position to present an object for simultaneous collective experience . A painting has always had an excellent chance to be viewed by one person or by a few. . the truly new is criticized with aversion. . conventional is uncritically enjoyed, . The greater the decrease in the social significance of an art form, the sharper the distinction between criticism and enjoyment by the public. . Such fusion is of great social significance . The progressive reaction is characterized by the direct, intimate fusion of visual and emotional enjoyment with the orientation of the expert. . The reactionary attitude toward a Picasso painting changes into the progressive reaction toward a Chaplin movie. . Mechanical reproduction of art changes the reaction of the masses toward art
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