But the instant the criterion of authenticity ceases to be applicable to artistic production, the total function of art is reversed. Instead of being based on ritual, it begins to be based on another practice – politics. . he work of art reproduced becomes the work of art designed for reproducibility. . An analysis of art in the age of mechanical reproduction must do justice to these relationships, for they lead us to an all-important insight: for the first time in world history, mechanical reproduction emancipates the work of art from its parasitical de . This gave rise to what might be called a negative theology in the form of the idea of “pure” art, which not only denied any social function of art but also any categorizing by subject matter. . the unique value of the “authentic” work of art has its basis in ritual, the location of its original use value . the existence of the work of art with reference to its aura is never entirely separated from its ritual function . first the magical, then the religious kind. . We know that the earliest art works originated in the service of a ritual . were equally confronted with its uniqueness, that is, its aura. . the clerics of the Middle Ages, who viewed it as an ominous idol. . stood in a different traditional context with the Greeks, who made it an object of veneration, . An ancient statue of Venus . The uniqueness of a work of art is inseparable from its being imbedded in the fabric of tradition. This tradition itself is thoroughly alive and extremely changeable. . t profound changes are impending in the ancient craft of the Beautiful. In all the arts there is a physical co . insignificant in comparison with ours. But the amazing growth of our techniques, the adaptability and precision they have

Walter Benjamin

Walter Benjamin

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An ancient statue of Venus, for example, stood in a different traditional context with the Greeks, who made it an object of veneration, than with . n ancient statue of Venus, for example, stood in a different traditional context with the Greeks, who made it an object o . The uniqueness of a work of art is inseparable from its being imbedded in the fabric of tradition. This tradition itself is thoroughly alive and extremely changeable. . To pry an object from its shell, to destroy its aura, is the mark of a perception whose “sense of the universal equality of things” has increased to such a degree that it extracts it even from a unique object by means of reproduction. . Uniqueness and permanence are as closely linked in the latter as are transitoriness and reproducibility in the former. . Unmistakably, reproduction as offered by picture magazines and newsreels differs from the image seen by the unarmed eye. . the desire of contemporary masses to bring things “closer” spatially and humanly . This image makes it easy to comprehend the social bases of the contemporary decay of the aura . We define the aura of the latter as the unique phenomenon of a distance, however close it may be. . The concept of aura which was proposed above with reference to historical objects may usefully be illustrated with reference to the aura of natural ones. . The conditions for an analogous insight are more favorable in the present. And if . changes in the medium of contemporary perception can be comprehended as decay of the aura, it is possible to show its social causes. . there developed not only an art different from that of antiquity but also a new kind of perception . The fifth century, with its great shifts of population, saw the birth of the late Roman art industry and the Vienna Genesis . he issued an invitation to a far-reaching liquidation. . reproduction to meet the beholder or listener in his own particular situation, it reactivates the object reproduced . substitutes a plurality of copies for a unique existence . he technique of reproduction detaches the reproduced object from the domain of tradition. . what is really jeopardized when the . historical testimony is affected is the authority of the object . the historical testimony rests on the authenticity . its testimony to the history which it has experienced. Since . The authenticity of a thing is the essence of all that is transmissible from its beginning . One might subsume the eliminated element in the term “aura” and go on to say: that which withers in the age of mechanical reproduction is the aura of the work of art. . The situations into which the product of mechanical reproduction can be brought may not touch the actual work of art, yet the quality of its presence is always depreciated. . technical reproduction can put the copy of the original into situations which would be out of reach for the original itself . photographic reproduction, with the aid of certain processes, such as enlargement or slow motion, can capture images which escape natural vision . Confronted with its manual reproduction, which was usually branded as a forgery . The traces of the first can be revealed only by chemical or physical analyses which it is impossible to perform on a reproduction; changes of ownership are subject to a tradition which must be traced from the situation of the original. . it also had captured a place of its own among the artistic processes. . Around 1900 technical reproduction had reached a standard that not only permitted it to reproduce all transmitted works of art and thus to cause the most profound change in their impact upon the public . The technical reproduction of sound was tackled at the end of the last century. . the process of pictorial reproduction was accelerated so enormously that it could keep pace with speech. . For the first time in the process of pictorial reproduction, photography freed the hand of the most important artistic functions which henceforth devolved only upon the eye looking into a lens. . a few decades after its invention, lithography was surpassed by photography. . lithography the technique of reproduction reached an essentially new stage. This much more direct process was distinguished by the tracing of the design on a stone rather than its incision on a block of wood or its etching on a copperplate and permitted g . ithography the techni . the beginning of the nineteenth century lithography made its appearance . During the Middle Ages engraving and etching were added to the woodcut; . became mechanically reproducible for the first time . With the woodcut graphic art . were the only art works which they could produce in quantity. . reproducing works of art: founding and stamping. Bronzes, terra cottas, and coins . The Greeks knew only two procedures of technically . Mechanical reproduction of a work of art, however, represents something new. . Replicas were made by pupils in practice of their craft . In principle a work of art has always been reproducible . They brush aside a number of outmoded concepts, such as creativity and genius, eternal value and mystery – concepts whose uncontrolled (and at present almost uncontrollable) application would lead to a processing of data in the Fascist sense. The concep . The transformation of the superstructure, which takes place far more slowly than that of the substructure, . production and through his presentation showed what could be expected of capitalism in the future. . He went back to the basic conditions underlying capitalistic . , this mode was in its infancy . When Marx undertook his critique of the capitalistic mode of production . es very different from the present, by men who

Walter Benjamin


“La municipalidad está obligada a interponer estas acciones tanto civiles como penales, porque como sostenedor debe mantener el normal funcionamiento de los establecimientos educacionales, según lo señala la ley general de educación y además para p

Se activa "gallito" entre alcalde de Santiago y colegios en toma | Publimetro Chile

I thought that perspective of looking at the "joint" was a remarkable reiteration of the spiritual underpinnings of yogic ideas through anatomy.

shivers up the spine: Leslie Kaminoff Part 2 of 2: North American Yoga, Who Owns This Practice?

Wash your hands thoroughly


Clean the bite area with antiseptic . Treat the tick as if it's contaminated; soak it in alcohol or flush it down the toilet . Use a tweezers to grasp the tick near its head or mouth and remove it carefully . When removing a tick from your skin: . Rocky Mountain spotted fever cannot be spread from person to person. . may never see the tick on you. . six to 10 hours, . Rocky Mountain spotted fever is caused by infection with the organism Rickettsia rickettsii. Ticks carrying R. rickettsii are the most common source of infection. . Some people who are infected with Rocky Mountain spotted fever don't ever develop a rash . typically appears three to five days after the initial signs and symptoms begin . fever include a severe headache and high fever. A few days later, a rash usually appears on the wrists and ankles. . Early signs and symptoms . most commonly found in the southeastern part of the United States. . transmitted by a tick.

Rocky Mountain spotted fever - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic


Rocky Mountain spotted fever - Symptoms and causes - Mayo Clinic

Animal Communication: Chapter 10 Outline

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Berman’s lament isn’t for an America that lost its way, but for one that never had a heart, but rather a colossal ego that raids other nations with self-righteous impunity. . Berman brings us to his conclusion that the only hope for America is to stop believing its own hype — something he doesn’t consider very likely. . Berman lists four descriptive conspiracies (or fallacies): First, that we are a chosen people (so we get to do whatever we want); second, that America itself is a kind of religion; third, that we must endlessly expand, whether it be geographically or fina
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